Individuals’ positions in a state can only be defined by their rights. Individual rights are required for a person’s personal, social, economic, political, mental, and moral development. They are vital not only for man’s development but also for the development of society and social worth. A right is an individual’s claim as well as a political and societal acknowledgment. Rights have a moral character and are intertwined with responsibilities. One’s right implies one’s or another’s responsibility. Rights should be used for the greater interest of society. Moral Rights, Legal Rights, Civil Rights, Political Rights, Economic Rights, and Human Rights are the main categories of rights.

Human Rights:-

Human rights are defined as the rights that every person has the right to enjoy and have safeguarded. Some of the rights and concepts are universal by definition. Natural Rights gave birth to the concept of human rights. Human rights are a subset of traditional natural rights. Human rights do not discriminate based on race, religion, gender, or language. Fundamental rights are another name for human rights. Peace, progress, and humanitarianism are all linked to human rights. The welfare and advancement of an individual are the goals of rights.


Human Rights are defined as “rights relating to life, equality, and dignity of the individual guaranteed by the Constitution or enshrined in an international covenant and enforceable by Indian courts,” according to Section 2(d) of the Protection of Human Rights Act, 1993.

History Of Human Rights:-

The concept of human rights has a long and illustrious history. Religions and cultures have fought for rights and fairness throughout history. One of the UN’s founding treaties lists reaffirming faith in fundamental human rights as one of its goals. The United Nations General Assembly adopted the Universal Declaration of Human Rights in 1948. The basis for present international human rights law is contained in this paper, which was drafted by an international group chaired by Eleanor Roosevelt. Human rights law is continually changing, as are our perceptions and definitions of what constitutes basic human rights.

The Universal Declaration of Human Rights was adopted by the United Nations in 1948. It is a document that discusses basic human rights, which are rights that everyone has just because they are human. There were several issues before 1948, when there were no human rights, such as –

1. War/ Conflict

2. Violence

3. Discrimination and Racism

4. Arbitrary Arrest

5. Dictatorship, I.e., Absence of Democracy

Human Rights were created to address all of these issues. The right to life, the right to freedom, the right to justice, and the right to equality are all examples of human rights. Regardless of their differences, all humans are equal. Right to health care, right to marry and start a family, right to an education, right to work or find work, right to a home or shelter, right to freedom of expression, right to select religion, right to own property, and right to vote These are only a few of the fundamental rights that every person in the world has from birth to death. They can never be taken away from you, yet they can be limited at times.

Important Concept Of Human Rights:-

MAGNA CARTA – It is often referred to as the Great Charter. On the 15th of June, 1215, King John of England signed a charter of rights. It aimed to bring unpopular kings and a group of people together in harmony. It further said that church rights will be protected.

THE VIRGINIA DECLARATION, 1776 – The number of fundamental rights as specified in this proclamation. It also said that all men are born equal in terms of freedom and independence, as well as having some inherent rights.

UNIVERSAL DECLARATION OF HUMAN RIGHTS, 1948 – It was adopted by United Nations General Assembly. It is a document that sets out for the first time, Fundamental Human Rights to be universally protected. 

INTERNATIONAL COVENANTS, 1966 – The United Nations General Assembly adopted two covenants on 16 December 1966 

1. The international covenant on Civil and Political Rights (ICCPR) 

2. International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights (ICESCR) 

INTERNATIONAL BILL OF RIGHTS – The International Bill of Rights is made up of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (ICCPR), the International Covenant on Economic, Social, and Cultural Rights (ICESCR), and two optional protocols.

Characteristics Of Human Rights:-

  • Human Rights are vital and necessary. 
  • Human Rights are inalienable.
  • Human Rights are associated with human dignity.
  • Human rights are unalienable.
  • Human Rights are required for the fulfilment of life’s purpose.
  • Human rights are unalienable.
  • Human rights are in constant flux.

Human Rights Day:-

Every year on December 10th, Human Rights Day is commemorated around the world. The Universal Declaration of Human Rights was adopted by the United Nations General Assembly on this day in 1948. (UDHR).

The day celebrates the fundamental human rights that everyone has by birth, regardless of race, color, religion, sex, language, political or other beliefs, national or social origin, property, birth, or other position. They attempt to engage the general public with the UN Human Rights generalist call to action “Stand Up for Human Rights.”

Objectives Of Human Rights:-

The goal of Human Rights is to provide people a sense of security. To cultivate each person’s identity, self-esteem, and respect for the human dignity of all individuals. The basic goal of granting people fundamental rights is to foster diversity respect, understanding, and appreciation. It also aspires to promote democracy, social justice, and equality.

The present article has been written by Kiran Israni, 2nd Year Law Student of Baba Saheb Ambedkar College of Law, Nagpur.

The present article has been edited by Shubham Yadav, 4th year Law student of Banasthali Vidyapith.

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