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Writ Petition (civil) 202 of 1995


December 12, 1996


T.N. Godavarman Thirumulpad


Union of India & Ors


Y.K. Sabharwal, Arijit Pasayat & S.H. Kapadia


Article 48A, Article 51A of The Constitution of India, Section 2 of forest conservation act.


A writ request in the Supreme Court was recorded by T.N. Godavarman Thirumulpad in 1995, to shield the Nilgiris woods land from deforestation by unlawful lumber activity. The incredible meaning of point associated with these issues, relating to insurance and preservation of woodland in the entire region. The court framed the assessment that this issue of backwoods security required a profundity hearing to see every one of the perspectives connected with public timberland strategy. Notwithstanding, it thought that couple of vital headings were needed regarding certain parts of the woods law the country over. The court gave specific itemized bearings for feasible utilization of timberland and directed the observing and execution framework through the country at various state-level networks controlling the utilization, recording, and development of wood the nation over in a perspective on assurance of public woodlands. The court even goes through every one of the parts of National Forest strategy the woods preservation act exhaustively to secure the backwoods.

T.N. Godavarman has expected a fundamental part concerning the protection and protection of the environment. He has different public interest cases to his advantage which oversee protection contemplations and concurring with nature. Normal law is a space of public significance that has been seen with the help of various NGOs and private affiliations. The zenith court has expected the piece of a driving force in safeguarding the natural concerns by articulating different achievement choices. This has prompted the development of an unheard-of level of the rule that began with absolute liability. As of now, it consolidates thoughts, for example, polluter pays rule, conservative development, and judicious rules.


At the point of convergence of the contention is an extremely huge task of the Uttar Pradesh government at Noida. According to the candidates, the endeavor is a “gigantic unapproved development”. The applicants express that innumerable trees were hacked down to clear the ground for the assignment. These trees outlined a “woodland” as the term was deciphered by this Court in its solicitation dated December 12, 1996, in T.N. Godavarman Thirumulkpad v. Association of India and Ors., (1997) 2 SCC 267 (1) and the action of the Uttar Pradesh Government in cleaving down a genuine woodland without the prior authorization of the Central Government and this Court, was in net encroachment of segment 2(ii) of the Forest (Conservation) Act, 1980. The Central Empowered Committee CEC on a thought about the overall large number of materials made available to it, including the report of the FSI, held that the endeavor site was not a forest area or a considered forest or woodlands like the district similar to the solicitation for SC, fundamentally, because the trees in the endeavor locale that were cleaved down for representing the improvements were established trees and not ordinarily evolved trees, and because the area was neither exhorted as “forest area” nor recorded as “forest area” in the Government record. The Court held that the endeavor site isn’t woodlands land and the improvement of the assignment without the previous assent from the Central Government doesn’t in any way go against segment 2 of the FC Act.


By T.N. Godavarman Thirumulpad v. Association of India, the Supreme Court left behind the common occupation of an interpreter of the law. This milestone case is generally called ‘the Forest Case in India’ This is because there was a legal violation of the established command when the Supreme Court accepted command over the inquiries of this case. It was concerning the control and oversight of the woods of India. T.N. Godavarman halted a writ claim in the year 1995 in the summit court of India. The central target of the writ demand was to safeguard and secure the woodland place where there is the Nilgiris as it was mishandled through deforestation by unlawful lumber works out. The key component of this case was that it was to save the backwoods. It was trailed by a gathering at full length concerning the National Forest Policy.

This was seen as break orientation that was required in the material issue. This was to look at the necessity and execution of woodland laws and rules inside the subcontinent of India. The Supreme Court provided requests to use the timberland land and its resources financially. Moreover, told that it’s everything except a self-checking part at the same time. The court communicated that an execution system should be molded at the regional and state level. This
was to control the transportation of wood.

Godavarman Thirumulpad had numerous pundits. It deals with the regular honors of all and the intercession of the court. Just intercession or the encroachments of the court can be rehearsed exactly when they are required. Legitimate interventions happen when the state misses the mark in its commitment to work. The most prominent interventions made by the court recollect the blacklist for the tree felling, direct wood adventures, the forbiddance of mining in Kudremukh, and with Aravallis, the rule of sawmills. Most of the striking judgment on woods organization is the burden of obligation known as Present Value for the utilization of backwoods land for non-officer administration purposes, the underpinning of the Compensatory Afforestation Fund, or CAMPA, and henceforth the course of action of searching for previous support from the Supreme Court for any business activity. Subsequently, exclusive’s work to stop timberland annihilation in Gudalur incited a watershed legal intervention, which has fundamentally added to the assurance of forests. Godavarman Thirumulpad will remain inside legitimate history.


  • Whether the new translation for Section 2 of the Forest Conservation Act and forest land is violative and regardless of whether the utilization of timber for business purposes is justified?
  • The issue is regarding the determination of the environment and majorly damage to the forest which were wealthy in the natural resources begin with the expanding the needs of individual emerging because of a move to industrialization, migration to an urban area, need more land for cultivation housing and other purposes.


It is a fundamental circumstance of the environment especially of the climate. T.N. Godavaraman, understanding the circumstance of the backwoods and being a careful inhabitant of India, couldn’t as yet keep away from relying upon defying such illegal practices. He went to the Indian lawful leader searching for some help from the Supreme Court.

On 12 December 1996, a seat drove by Chief Justice J.S. Verma passed an interval request organizing that tree-felling and non-ranger service administration development in forestland the country over be ended. The way-breaking request redescribed the meaning of forestland and loosened up protection to all spaces with regular woods no matter what their proprietorship. It set out that ‘timberlands’ will be seen by its promise reference meaning and the arrangement of the Forest (Conservation) Act 1980, will apply to all thickly lush areas. States were composed to frame ace chambers to recognize backwoods as characterized and record reports. Senior Counsel Harish Salve was assigned Amicus Curie to help the Supreme Court. What followed was amazing. A couple of northeastern States, where backwoods were being assaulted by groups and unregulated sawmills worked straightforwardly, were shaken. A limitation on the advancement of illicit lumber was constrained. 94 rail route trucks of wrongfully sent wood were seized. At that stage, even the Supreme Court no doubt didn’t anticipate that the matter would be saved open for close to 20 years. However, luckily, it is alluded to in the set-up rule as the Writ of continuing with mandamus. More than 1,000 Interlocutory Applications have since been recorded, covering a scope of issues concerning boondocks protection, such as mining, tree-felling, the leaders of Protected Areas, and forest encroachment.

Considering the rising number of IAs and u thought of the issues being referred to, the court requested the constitution of a specialist body, the Central Empowered Committee (CEC), in May 2002. In September 2002 it was educated as a lawful leading body of legal administrators with wide-going powers to oversee impending IAs, hear new applications, and pass orders in consonance with those of the Supreme Court. Another perspective in the association of forests had been made. The omnibus backwoods case is at this point open yet under unique hearing any longer into its 20th year. The CEC continues, yet not as a legitimate warning gathering.


This case included the necessity for staying aware of and anticipating timberland helpfulness. It works with the assurance of organic variety. Similarly, safeguarding and getting biological conditions were discussed for the present circumstance. The consequence of the T.N. Godavarman v. Association of India and Ors notices the diminishing and the finish of different wood ventures. It moreover settled natural mindfulness among the occupants of India. It refused deforestation stringently. This case has gone probably as an improvement in environmental safeguarding and insurance for an enormous scope. The essential responsibility of this case was the powerful and smooth movement of various laws in doing natural activities.


  1. T.N. Godavarman Thirumulpad vs Union Of India & Ors on 6 July, 2011. indiankanoon.org. [Online] https://indiankanoon.org/doc/1725193/.

Written by Sara Agrawal student at Sinhgad Law College, Pune.

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