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Protection of Whistle Blower – A Socio-Legal Perspective


In the present time, examples of fraud, corruption, and deception are normal. The need for whistle-blower assurance couldn’t possibly be more significant in a climate where the disguise of realities is advanced, basically in light of the fact that the culprits of violations are safeguarded by those in, influential places. Whistle-blowers have confronted dangers from wrongdoers all over the world, and most state-run administrations have passed regulations to safeguard them. In any case, there is one more illustration of the legitimate regulation requirement that necessities notice.

Safeguarding whistle-blowers in the private area cultivate consistency observing as well as recognizing hostility to corruption infringement. Whistle-blower insurance techniques that are compelling give workers the necessary certainty and feeling of safety in the framework. They feel a sense of urgency to report, however they likewise get to know the framework’s detailing conventions. Subsequently, organizations are safeguarded from bribery and money laundering.1

Whistleblowing is a term used to portray conduct in which an individual uncovered things that are respected illicit, indecent, or mischief to the general population or inside an association. In India, a whistle-blower can be a current or previous worker who uncovers data in regards to supposed corruption, offense, fraud, or a break of the organization’s strategies and regulations.

Whistleblowing is a term used to portray conduct in which an individual uncovered things that are respected illicit, indecent, or mischief to the general population or inside an association. In India, a whistle-blower can be a current or previous worker who uncovers data in regards to supposed corruption, offense, fraud, or a break of the organization’s strategies and regulations. In previous years, whistle-blowers have utilized the Right to Information Act of 2005 to gather relevant information in regards to any unlawful or indecent lead and make it accessible to the more extensive public. Whistle-blowers are fit for uncovering the organization’s fraudulent activities by utilizing RTI as a weapon. A considerable lot of them are RTI advocates whose intention is to make the framework more straightforward. Such data may be utilized actually to raise public information about government activities and might really be considered for the purpose of review for people.2

Then again, such activists have confronted the outcomes of an absence of insurance, with the quantity of RTI activists killed expanding in the course of the last ten years. Subsequently, the current construction of data chasing and revelation instruments uncovers various challenges. With regards to observing data, many individuals face an assortment of difficulties. One of the important basis for these issues is that, while the RTI is accessible to anybody, whistle-blowers and data locators are denied security. Individuals have threatened or even gone after them on various events in light of the fact that the data they need might make trouble the authorities they are asking about. This could likewise assume a part in the killings of truth-searchers like Rajendra Prasad Singh in Bihar, who uncovered a few dishonest practices in the neighborhood government’s police enrolling and medical care arrangements, and Amit Jethwa, who used RTI to uncover illicit mining in Gujarat’s Gir Forest. This new age of whistle-blowers has been given the last blow. While the Whistle-blowers Protection Act of 2014 states that it is the public authority’s liability to guarantee that whistle-blowers are safeguarded from exploitation and their personalities are covered up, the demonstration still can’t seem to be carried out.

The significance of having hostile to corruption whistle-blower insurance regulation set up has been perceived by instruments targeting fighting corruption on a public and worldwide level. Whistle-blower security provisos have been evoked for UN Conventions Against Corruption, the 2009 OECD Council Recommendation on Further Combating Bribery of Foreign Public Officials in International Business Transactions (Anti-Bribery Recommendation), the 1998 OECD Recommendation on Improving Ethical Conduct in Public Service, the Council of Europe Civil and Criminal Law Conventions on Corruption, the Inter-American Convention against Corruption, and the United Nations Convention against Corruption Such measures have built up the global legitimate system, making it simpler for legislatures to pass powerful whistle-blower assurance regulation.3

What is exactly “Whistle-Blowing”?

Despite the fact that the word does not appear to indicate what it means, there is no common legal definition of what actually constitutes whistleblowing. It is defined by the International Labour Organization (ILO) as the reporting of illegal, irregular, harmful, or unethical employer practices by employees or former employees. The 2009 OECD Recommendation of the Council for Further Combating Bribery of Foreign Public Officials in International Business Transactions (Anti-Bribery Recommendation) refers to public and private sector employees who report in good faith and on reasonable grounds to the competent authorities being protected from discriminatory or disciplinary action.
Any individual who discloses any facts concerning offenses established in line with the UNCAC to the competent authorities in good faith and on reasonable grounds is referred to by the UNCAC. Employees who have rational grounds to suspect corruption and who notify their suspicions to responsible authorities or individuals in good faith are attributed to in the Council of Europe Civil Law Convention against Corruption. India’s statutes do not yet include a definition of whistleblowing. National whistleblowing legislation has used similar language as well. PIDA in the United Kingdom, for example, refers to any revelation of information that, in the reasonable opinion of the worker making the disclosure, tends to show one or more of the following: (the provision continues by listing a series of acts, including in relation to the commission of criminal offenses).

The disclosure of wrongdoings related to the workplace; a public interest dimension, such as the reporting of criminal offenses, unethical practices, and so on, rather than a personal grievance; and the reporting of wrongdoings through designated channels and/or to designated persons, are all key characteristics of whistleblowing.4

Right to information in India and whistle-blowers

People didn’t have simple admittance to information until the 2005 execution of the Right to Information Act. Individuals couldn’t take part in any of the discussions or censure the dynamic cycle because of an absence of information, regardless of whether they were enduring because of it. The Official Secrets Act of 1923 filled in as a remnant of British imperialism, keeping everything stowed away. Normal citizens had no legitimate right to enquire about government strategies and spending. Citizens who were chosen to control the gatherings accountable for strategy making and adding to the financing of public activities were denied admittance to basic information.

The impact of this culture of mystery was the rich ground for corrupt activities to prosper. Citizens created feelings of feebleness and alienation because of limitations on the free progression of information. In these conditions, the overall population and various nongovernmental associations needed more noteworthy admittance to government-controlled information. The public authority followed the requests by enacting the Right to Information Act of 2015.

The impact of this culture of mystery was the rich ground for corrupt activities to prosper. Citizens created feelings of feebleness and alienation because of limitations on the free progression of information. In these conditions, the overall population and various nongovernmental associations needed more noteworthy admittance to government-controlled information. The public authority consented to the requests by enacting the Right to Information Act of 2015.

Individuals play a basic part in uncovering the corruption that exists inside a corrupt framework. These people accept a major gamble by uncovering corruption in their organizations. Consider the instance of Satyendra Dubey, a legitimate and genuine whistle-blower for the National Highways Authority of India (NHAI) who had committed his life.

Therefore, the Supreme Court laid out a Central Vigilance Commission to safeguard whistle-blowers. The National Campaign for People’s Right to Information, which was instrumental in the entry of the RTI Act, has mentioned that the Whistle-blowers Protection Bill 2011 be passed rapidly.

The Whistle-blowers Protection Act, 2011, is an Act of the Indian Parliament that lays out a design to explore charges of debasement and maltreatment of force by local area laborers, as well as to safeguard anyone who reports affirmed bad behavior in government bodies, activities, or work environments. Distortion, debasement, or mess up are instances of malpractices or bad behaviors. The Act was supported by the Indian Cabinet as a component of a mission to kill corruption in the nation’s organization, and it was enacted by the Lok Sabha on December 27, 2011. Whenever the Rajya Sabha passed the Bill on February 21, 2014, and the President gave his authorization on May 9, 2014, it turned into an Act.5

Analysis of Whistle-Blowers Protection Act, 2014

The Whistle Blowers Protection Act of 2014 (herein referred to as the “Act”) was enacted to offer a framework for investigating allegations of public servant corruption and abuse of authority, as well as to safeguard people who report wrongdoings. However, seven years have elapsed since the Act’s enactment and no changes have been made. There has been a widespread call to enhance several aspects of the Act in order to make it more whistle-blower-friendly and to provide proper protection to whistle-blowers.6

Salient Features of the Act

As per the Act, any individual who files a complaint under the Act about disclosure is referred to as a complainant.
Disclosure means signifies a complaint about an attempt to commit or commit an offense under the 1988 Prevention of Corruption Act; attempt to commit or commission of a criminal offense by a public servant, made in writing or by electronic mail or electronic mail message, against the public servant, and includes public interest disclosure referred to in sub-section (2) of section 4 of the Act.

The Act’s Section 11 protects the complainant from being treated unfairly. This was implemented in light of numerous incidents in India where whistle-blowers have been threatened, harassed, and even assassinated for reporting frauds. Satyendra Dubey, the man responsible for exposing the corruption case involving the Golden Quadrilateral project of the National Highways Authority of India, was killed. He joined the Indian Engineering Service (IES) and became Project Director at the National Highway Authority of India (NHAI) in Koderma, Jharkhand, in 2002. The Indian government, led by Atal Bihari Vajpayee, embarked on a massive Golden Quadrilateral Project to connect all major Indian cities by four and six-lane highways, with Satyendra Dubey in charge of a section of NH-2 (GT Road). He discovered that a subcontractor, Larsen, and Toubro, had obtained a contract from the Indian government and passed it on to smaller contract mafias incapable of handling such a large-scale project. He also saw that conventional methods and quality were not followed when constructing the roads. When he did not receive a satisfactory response from the NHAI authorities, he wrote directly to Prime Minister Atal Bihari Vajpayee. He appealed for his name to be kept anonymous, but the letter was submitted to the Ministry of Road Transport and Highways, along with his profile information. He was assassinated in Gaya, Bihar, in 2003, on his way back from a wedding in Varanasi. Three of the suspects were found guilty and sentenced to life in prison by a special CBI court led by Raghvendra Singh.

Shanmugam Manjunath, an Indian Oil Corporation officer, was murdered in Uttar Pradesh after sealing a petrol outlet selling tainted fuel. Mayawati’s government was accused of corruption and theft, and a senior police officer was transferred to a psychiatric facility. When the petrol pump started working again, he led an unannounced raid a month later to inspect the fuel quality. He was shot six times in 2005, and his body was discovered in the backseat of his car. This announcement sparked widespread outrage across the country, as well as in the media. The Trial Court found all eight defendants guilty and condemned them all, with one being sentenced to death and the other seven receiving life sentences. The High Court, on the other hand, overturned the death sentence for one of the defendants and acquitted two others. The Supreme Court upheld the life sentences given to six individuals in 2015.

Section 17 of the Act states that anyone who makes a false, wrong, or misleading disclosure with the knowledge that it is false, incorrect, or misleading is punishable by up to two years in prison and a fine of up to thirty thousand rupees.7

Laws related to Whistle Blower in other Countries

The primary parts of whistle-blower protection systems all over the planet are interior homegrown regulations, which fill in as models for nations needing to enact such regulation, regardless of whether the regulation isn’t yet significant. They are broad in scope. Whistle-blower protection regulation is remembered for a few homegrown regulations, for example, the Whistle-blower Protection Act (WPA) in Japan, the Protected Disclosures Act (PDA) in South Africa, and the Public Interest Disclosure Act in the United Kingdom (UK PIDA).

A country’s Criminal Code may likewise incorporate whistle-blower protection; for instance, the Canadian Criminal Code prohibits revenge against a worker who uncovered information about wrongdoing. The Sarbanes-Oxley Act (SOX Act) modified the United States Federal Criminal Code to force a fine and additionally detainment for reprisal against any whistle-blower who gives precise information to regulation requirement specialists concerning the wrongdoing or likely commission of any Federal offense.

Protections are given by regulation in different countries for explicit offenses. Corruption regulations, contest regulations, bookkeeping regulations, natural protection regulations, work regulations, and corporate and protections regulations are instances of sectoral regulation that give whistle-blower protections in these nations. Explicit people are protected by these resolutions. On the other hand, for the detailing of explicit violations. Korea’s Act on Anti-Corruption and the Establishment and Operation of the Anti-Corruption and Civil Rights Commission (ACRC Act) is one such model, as it safeguards any individual who unveils a corruption act to the Commission.

Workers who report wellbeing or security dangers, as well as episodes of lewd behavior, are protected under France’s Code du Travail. Whistle-blowers who submit information to the Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) about an associated infringement with protections regulation that has happened, is happening, or is going to happen are protected under the Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act (Dodd-Frank Act).

There are decisions that control the way of behaving of community workers at the international level and in a few public sectors. Workers can involve these regulations as a wellspring of whistle-blower protection. Around here, the Public Servants Disclosure Protection Act (PSDPA) of Canada safeguards local officials who report bad behaviors in or relating to the public sector against reprisal. Whistle-blower protections for community workers who uncover breaks (or claimed breaks) of the Code to an approved individual are explicitly referenced in the Australian Public Service Code of Conduct.

Maybe the private sector has stayed unaffected or unprotected. A few nations have laid out whistle-blower protection for private sector staff in their regulation. The WPA in Japan and the PDA in South Africa both give remarkable security to both public and private sector representatives under this system. Protected disclosures are permitted under the Australian Corporations Act, including for specific criminal offenses. Whistle-blowers in the business sector are likewise covered by the Dodd-Frank Act.

The Whistle-blower Protection Act was passed in 1989 in the United States, and it has since been enhanced by whistle-blower arrangements in the Sarbanes-Oxley Act and the Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act. These last two Acts are to a great extent focused on the private sector; however, they are additionally important for the system that shields central government whistle-blowers from reprisal and takes into consideration cures. Just disclosures made by the Canadian government public assistance and some bureaucratic Crown organizations are covered by the Canadian Public Servants Disclosure Protection Act of 2005.

Indeed, even while specific purviews in Australia give protection for the half-breed plot, Australia’s whistle-blower regulation solely applies to the public sector. Both public and private faculty are protected under the Japanese whistleblowing protection act for public interest disclosures. Article 7 explicitly addresses the treatment of national public representatives in the customary assistance, precluding excusal or other unfavorable treatment in view of whistleblowing.

Whistle-blower protection is found at the most significant level of international regulation. The international legitimate structure against corruption expects nations to remember – or consider including – appropriate instruments for their homegrown overall sets of laws to safeguard the people who report any facts about acts of corruption to capable experts with sincere intentions and on sensible grounds. All significant international arrangements managing corruption perceive whistle-blower protection. In international human rights regulation, the protection of whistle-blowers is accentuated, especially when they are the main individual who knows about the detailed circumstance and is additionally in the best situation to inform the business or the more extensive public in general.

For instance, the European Court of Human Rights found in 2008 that a community worker’s excusal for delivering unclassified papers demonstrating political control of the court framework comprised an infringement of article 10 of the European Convention on Human Rights. A medical caretaker working for a State-possessed firm was as of late sacked subsequent to presenting a criminal objection against her boss for purposely neglecting to give the top-notch administration guaranteed in its notice, setting patients in danger.


When someone puts society in jeopardy, the public has a right to know about it. Whistleblowing is a courageous act undertaken by those whose souls do not let them remain silent and to have a dim view of others’ wrongdoings. Whistleblowing protects society, fosters increased interest, and strengthens law and order by exposing corruption or any other sort of wrongdoing that causes harm to an individual. This is why their protection is crucial, and at the very least, their safety must be guaranteed.

Whistleblowing is a crucial component of a healthy society, but it’s also important to look at the other side. However, where there are serious implications for global defense, confidentiality and anonymity can be justified, as it would be in the public interest not to publish or disseminate such information. As a result, a delicate balance will be required between the two competing aims of government transparency and public safety. To maintain this balance, the government should approve the Whistle-blowers Act and build a strong regulatory framework to protect whistle-blowers.


  1. http://www.iosrjournals.org/iosr-jhss/papers/Vol19-issue4/Version-7/A019470109.pdf
  2. http://www.ijetmas.com/admin/resources/project/paper/f201503031425430684.pdf
  3. http://www.rtifoundationofindia.com/when-shall-whistleblowers-protection-act-be-implem#.XvYVDCgzZPZ
  4. https://www.legalserviceindia.com/legal/article-4674-protection-of-whistle-blowers-a-socio-legal-perspective.html#:~:text=The%20U.S.%20Whistleblower%20Protection%20Act,safety%20or%20violating%20criminal%20law.
  5. https://blog.ipleaders.in/right-information-protection-whistleblowers/
  6. https://www.mondaq.com/india/whistleblowing/1118060/whistle-blowers-protection-act-2014-a-cracked-foundation#:~:text=The%20Whistle%20Blowers%20Protection%20Act,been%20made%20to%20the%20Act.
  7. http://www.conventuslaw.com/report/india-scraping-the-amorphous-contours-of/

This article is written by Arryan Mohanty, a student of Symbiosis Law School.

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