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1992 AIR 1858, 1992 SCR (3) 658


Miss Mohini Jain     


State Of Karnataka And Ors.


Kuldip Singh (J)


30 July, 1992


Constitution of India, 1950-Articles 41, 45-Right to Education, Karnataka Educational  Institutions  (Prohibition of Capitation Fee) Act, 1984 ( Section 3)


Mohini Jain was a young lady initially from Meerut, Uttar Pradesh, and needed to seek after MBBS from a confidential school in Karnataka named Sri Sriddharatha Medical College, Agalokote, Tumkur. As per the Karnataka Educational Institutions (Prohibition of Capitation Fee) Act, it was laid out by the state government that Private Medical Colleges will charge just ₹2000 per annum from understudies conceded on Government seats, ₹25,000 from understudies from the territory of Karnataka and ₹60,000 from understudies of the other states in India. Aside from this, no expense ought to be requested from the understudy. This step was taken to guarantee that the Private Medical Colleges don’t charge cash from understudies in return for affirmation.

The administration of the school illuminated her that she would need to present an amount of ₹60,000 for each year however her dad passed on to the specialists that ₹60,000 is an enormous measure of cash and he was unable to manage the cost of that. On this premise, she was denied confirmation in the school. Miss Jain later affirmed that separated from the ₹60,000 the school likewise requested ₹4,50,000 as a capitation charge however this was denied by the school.

The Respondents guaranteed that she was approached to pay a measure of Rs. 60,000, and thusly, the Management got a call from the Petitioner’s dad who pronounced that he didn’t possess the ability to pay the extreme sum.

The Petitioner guaranteed that she was approached to pay an extra amount of around four and a half lakhs as capitation expense, which was denied by the Respondents energetically. Ms. Jain recorded a request under Article 32 of the Indian Constitution testing the notice of the Karnataka Legislature that considers requesting such excessive sums from understudies for the sake of educational cost.

The appeal guaranteed that the warning was violative of Articles 12, 14, 21, and 41 of the Indian Constitution as it conspicuously denied the Right to training to Indian residents on an erratic premise. The expense charged could without much of a stretch be recognized as a capitation charge. It was, in this manner, violative of Section 3 of the Act and against the excellencies of Right to Equality and Right to Education.


  • Whether the Right to Education is ensured to the residents of India in consonance with Fundamental Rights, and whether charging a capitation expense infracts something similar?
  • Whether the charging of capitation expense is violative of the fairness statement cherished in Article 14?
  • Whether the criticized warning allowed the charging of a capitation expense dishonestly?
  • Whether the notice is violative of the arrangements of the Act restricting the charging of such expenses?


The Petitioner battled that the burden of such colossal charges for training by the confidential school is against the different articles under the Indian Constitution.

For this situation, the Respondent battled at first that the rules which have been continued in the confidential school with respect to the capitation expenses are not chargeable from those understudies who were equipped for the Government situates yet just from those understudies who were from various classes. They additionally contended that as they were following such grouping of seats in the school under merit list or under nonmeritorious list, which suggests that Government seats for up-and-comers who were under merit rundown and other people who were not. Accordingly, the administration leading group of the school has the option to charge expenses from the individuals who didn’t go under the legitimacy list.

One more contention by the Respondent was that as they were a confidential clinical school and there was no monetary guide which was given from the public authority Karnataka or the focal government furthermore basically these confidential clinical universities used to cause 5 Lakh Rupees as use for MBBS course. Ultimately, they additionally battled that the confidential clinical universities have consistently observed the Guideline of regulation and submitted to every one of the regulations for the smooth working of the organization and were legitimate in charging the capitation expenses.


After hearing the contentions from both the gatherings the Apex Court held that however the Right to Education isn’t explicitly referenced as a Fundamental Right; Articles 38, 39(a), (f), 41, and 45 of the Indian Constitution, it is clarified that the of the constitution makes it required for the State to instruct its residents. Article 21 of the constitution peruses “No individual will be denied of his life or individual freedom besides as indicated by the technique laid out by regulation”. Under Article 21 of the constitution and a singular’s poise can’t be guaranteed except if he has a Privilege of Education and taught himself. Further, the Court thought about the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, by the United Nations and a few cases that held that the Right to Life envelops more than “life and appendage” including necessities of life, sustenance, haven, and education.

Charging immense expenses limits admittance to instruction to the lower layers of society and makes it accessible just to the more extravagant segment of individuals. Poor meriting up-and-comers can not get confirmation because of the failure to pay the endorsed charges and as a result, in instructive establishments, a resident’s “All in all correct to Education” gets denied. Further, permitting the charging of an exceptionally high capitation expense disregards Article 14 of the Constitution of India the Court noted. The main strategy for admission to clinical universities ought to be founded on merit alone. The court likewise said that the judgment cannot is applied reflectively and cases past this cant receive the reward of the judgment.


The Hon’ble Court displayed its choice of standards of social government assistance and value. 10 years and a half before ‘Right to Education’ was officially presented in the Constitution. The judgment is moderate and somewhat radical. The Court was constant in its understanding of what summed as a capitation expense and its relevance — or deficiency in that department. Its exhaustive assessment of Fundamental Rights interlinked with the Right to training was exemplary. The Court underscored the Right to rise to the opportunity being similarly essentially as vital as the Right to uniformity itself. An extreme assertion in the recently changed Indian setting, the idea that the Right to training moved from the Right to life honored the philosophies of the days of yore. The Court put import on merit as opposed to monetary capital, a demonstration that should have been visible as an obstruction against privatizing instruction.

This article is written by Arpita Kaushal, a student of UILS, PUSSGRC, HOSHIARPUR.

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