-Report by Manaswa Sharma


Proceedings withinside the present suo motu writ petition had been initiated on 22 April 2021, while this Court took consciousness of the control of the COVID-19 pandemic at some stage in the second wave. Subsequently, hearings had been performed on 23 April 2021, 27 April 2021, and 30 April 2021 while submissions had been heard on behalf of the Union of India, States/Union Territories, found out Amici appointed through this Court and a number of the intervenors

Since the remaining listening to on this matter, the second wave of the COVID-19 pandemic has begun out receding throughout the state and the scenario seems to have come to be extra manageable. Hence, a number of the problems mentioned withinside the preceding orders can watch for similar deliberation. However, the problem of vaccination is surely crucial, because fitness professionals globally agree that vaccination of the state’s complete eligible populace is the singular maximum critical project inefficaciously preventing the COVID-19 pandemic withinside the lengthy run. Hence, at some stage in the direction of the court cases on 31 May 2021, this Court has restricted itself to listening to submissions at the UoI’s vaccination coverage and its roadmap for the future. By manner of plentiful clarification, we observe that every one of the problems contained on this Court’s preceding orders nonetheless holds their universal importance, and this Court shall keep to screen them along with the National Task Force and intrude each time necessary.

Submission by Counsel

Tushar Mehta, Solicitor General, based on the affidavit of the UoI dated May 9, 2021, has filed the following additions in the light of recent updates:

  • The vaccination campaign will be completed by the end of December 2021, and the central government is leading at the highest political and level Active diplomatic talks with foreign vaccine manufacturers to ensure sufficient vaccine supplies;
  • It would be wrong to suggest that one consequence of the updated UoI directive on vaccinating 18-44-year-olds is that there will be competition between states / UT; and
  • Anyone over 45 can continue to be vaccinated at a center by registering on-site without pre-booking an appointment through CoWIN.

Mr. Jaideep Gupta and Ms. Meenakshi Arora, discovered Senior suggests and Amici, have raised the subsequent troubles referring to vaccination distribution, augmentation of vaccine manufacturing and differential pricing of vaccines, and the destiny preparedness for handling the COVID-19 pandemic:

  • With admire to the procurement of vaccines, reviews endorse that overseas vaccine producer are commonly now no longer receptive or open to a speak with State/UT Governments on the premise that, as a rely upon company coverage, they handiest cope with federal governments of various countries;
  • The UIP has been changed through the Liberalized Pricing and Accelerated National COVID-19 Vaccination Strategy from 1 May 2021 in segment three of the vaccination force.

National Vaccination Policy

Phase 1 of the National COVID-19 Vaccination Strategy become released on sixteen January 2021 and 1 February 2021 and become centered closer to shielding HCWs and FLWs. Phase 2 become initiated on 1 March 2021 and 1 April 2021, and become directed closer to shielding the maximum susceptible populace withinside the age organization of men and women above forty-five years of age. In sections 1 and 2, the UoI become buying the vaccines and dispensing them to the States/UTs freed from fee for disbursal thru authorities and personal COVID-19 vaccination centers. The personal centers had been now no longer allowed to price a sum above Rs 250 in step with an individual in step with dose (Rs a hundred and fifty for vaccines and Rs a hundred as operational charges) from a beneficiary.

Separation of Powers

First, we try to clarify the nature of the court’s jurisdiction over the administration of the COVID-19 pandemic in India.​​​ The affidavit dated May 9, 2021, listed the following points:

  • The current vaccination policy is in line with Articles 14 and 21 of the Constitution and does not require court intervention, because the administrative department has “room for maneuver” in the face of such a large-scale epidemic;
  • Continue to take measures to deal with the imminent crisis, In the long run, this may be reckless; however, they should be fully evaluated in the short term;
  • Judicial review of administrative guidelines is only allowed in completely arbitrary circumstances. When executives need expert medical and scientific advice to solve a medical crisis, procedures need to be adopted;
  • In the absence of professional advice or management experience, any excessive, albeit in good faith, judicial intervention may lead to undesirable situations. There is almost no room for managers to find innovative solutions.

Issues with the Liberalized Vaccination Policy

1.Vaccine Logistics

We have already stated that attributable to the Liberalized Vaccination Policy, the obligation for the vaccination in segment three is being divided among the Central Government (for the ones above forty-five years of age, HCWs and FLWs) and the State/UT Government together with the non-public hospitals (for the age institution of 18-forty four years). This could suggest that the constrained vaccine logistics to be had in a State/UT could be shared among the State/UT Government and the Central Government. This isn’t the same as the state of affairs beneath neath the UIP, wherein the Central Government buys and allocates vaccines to States/UTs, as a way to make certain that their bloodless garage centers aren’t overwhelmed. Hence, we direct the UoI to offer the subsequent clarifications:

  • The way wherein bloodless garage gadget capability is being balanced among the Central and State/UT Governments. The way wherein the States/UTs are dealing with the logistical burden for vaccinating men and women elderly among 18-forty four years, together with men and women elderly over forty-five years.
  • Whether bloodless garage centers in India have improved for the COVID-19 vaccination drive; the prevailing numbers, and evaluation with the numbers previous to March 2020;
  • Whether the bloodless garage gadget is indigenously synthetic or is imported. If it’s far imported, the stairs that have been taken to begin indigenous manufacturing.

3.Digital Divide

In our order dated 30 April 2021, we had highlighted the issues regarding the cap potential of the marginalized participants of society to avail of vaccination, completely via a virtual portal within side the face of a virtual divide. The UoI’s affidavit made the subsequent submissions in terms of the accessibility of the CoWIN portal:

  • The CoWIN portal allows one individual to sign in four folks the usage of the equal cellular wide variety;
  • Walk-ins can not be accredited because of the shortage of vaccines and fears of overcrowding at centers. The online registration requirement counters this worry and additionally efficaciously video display units the management of the second dose. The coverage can be re-taken into consideration in the end whilst extra vaccines are to be had.

It has been delivered to our be aware that the CoWIN platform isn’t handy to folks with visible disabilities. The internet site suffers from positive accessibility obstacles which have to be addressed. These encompass:

  • Audio or textual content captcha isn’t to be had;
  • The seven filters, which inter alia, encompass age group, call of vaccine, and whether or not the vaccine is paid or free, aren’t designed accessibly. This problem may be addressed with the aid of using the introduction of a drop-down list;
  • While visually challenged folks can decide the wide variety of to be had vaccine slots, one can not discover the day the ones slots correspond to. This may be resolved with the aid of using making sure that desk headers correspond to related cells.


We direct the UoI to report a testimony, which shall cope with the troubles and questions raised in Section E, in which it shall make certain that every problem is answered to in my opinion and no problem is neglected out. We additionally direct that the affidavit ought to offer the subsequent information:

  • The records on the proportion of populace that has been vaccinated (with one dose and each dose), as towards eligible folks withinside the first 3 stages of the vaccination drive. This shall encompass records relating the proportion of rural populace in addition to the proportion of city populace so vaccinated;
  • The whole records at the Central Government’s buy records of all of the COVID-19 vaccines until date (Covaxin, Covishield, and Sputnik V). The records ought to make clear: (a) the dates of all procurement orders positioned via way of means of the Central Government for all three vaccines; (b) the number of vaccines ordered as on every date; and (c) the projected date of supply.

We additionally notice that UoI’s said to function in its affidavit dated nine May 2021 is that each State/UT Government shall offer vaccination freed from fee to its populace. Person State/UT Governments must confirm/deny this function earlier than this Court. Further, if they have determined to vaccinate their populace free of charge then, as a rely upon principle, it’s far critical that this coverage is annexed to their affidavit, so that the populace inside their territories may be confident in their proper to be vaccinated free of charge at a State vaccination center. Hence, we direct every of the State/UT Governments to additionally report a testimony within 2 weeks, wherein they shall make clear their function and place on file their policies.

……………………………………J. [Dr Dhananjaya Y Chandrachud]

……………………………………J. [L Nageswara Rao]

……………………………………J. [S Ravindra Bhat]

New Delhi.

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